July 14th, 2012
Actual educational interactions mutual communication between the parties with the other one, already contain certain purposes, namely to achieve the same sense then to achieve the goal (in the learning activities meant to achieve learning objectives).
Interaction is said to be educative interactions, as a conscious aim to educate, to lead students toward maturity.
Education and teaching is one of the businesses that are aware of the purpose of systematically directed at changing behavior towards maturity of students. Pestalozzi said that the meaning and purpose of education is Hifle Selbshilfe Zur, that help to help themselves.
Teaching is a process that serves to guide the student / students in the life, to guide the develop themselves according to the developmental tasks that must be done by the students. Duties will include the development needs of individuals and the community as well as God’s creatures.
Teachers need to guide, provide a useful provision. He was a teacher should be able to give something dikdatis, interactions with their duty to create educational situations. Teachers are not enough to just know the science of materials that will be described and taught to students, but also must know the basic philosophical and diktatisnya, but also be aware that the basic philosophy and dikdatisnya, so as to provide motivation in the process of interaction with students. In this case as well as to understand the methodology.
Later in detail in the educational process at least contain features include:
1. There are goals to be achieved
2. There are materials / messages into the content of the interaction
3. There is an active learning experience
4. There are teachers who are implementing
5. There are methods to achieve goals
6. There are situations that allow the learning process goes well
7. There is an assessment of the interaction.
Education can also be formulated in terms of the technical process, which is mainly seen in terms of events. Events in this case is a practical activity that takes place in one period and tied in one situation and focus on one goal. These events are a network of communication between human activity, network activity influences the other. A network of change and growth in intellectual and social growth. Education is a very complex set of cultures that can be used as the planning of human life.
Teaching-learning process will continue a process of interaction between the two elements of two human elements, namely the student as learner and teacher as those who teach, the students as the principal subject. In the process of interaction between students and teachers, required supporting components such as, among others, has called on the features of educational interaction.
Edi Suardi in his pedagogic (1980) details the features of teaching and learning interactions as follows:
1. The interaction of teaching and learning has a purpose, namely to help a child in a particular development.
2. There is a procedure (the course of interaction) was planned, designed to achieve the intended purpose.
3. Teaching and learning interaction is characterized by a special cultivation of the material
4. Characterized by the activity of students.
As a consequence, the student is central, then the student activity is a necessary condition for the continuity of teaching and learning interactions.
1. In the interaction of teaching and learning, teachers act as mentors
2. In the teaching-learning interaction takes discipline
3. No time limit
In teaching activities, what they say it will last educative interaction with the activity of teaching and learning interactions.
Components of Teaching
Teaching is a system, that is a whole consisting of components berinterelasi and interact with each other and with themselves to achieve the overall goal of teaching predetermined.
The components include:
1. The purpose of education and teaching
2. Learners or students
3. Educational personnel, especially teachers,
4. Planning of teaching as a segment of the curriculum
5. Learning strategies
6. Evaluation of teaching.
The teaching process is characterized by the interaction between the components.
Education is a process in order to influence students to adjust to themselves as possible to its environment and thus will cause a change in him that enabled him to function adequately in society.
The values in the teaching objectives are as follows:
1.Purpose of directing and guiding the educational activities of teachers and students in the teaching process.
2.Purpose educational goals motivating teachers and students.
3.Purpose of providing guidance or direction of education for teachers in order to select and determine the method of teaching or providing a learning environment for students.
4.The purpose of education is essential in order to select and determine the educational props to be used.
5.The purpose of education is important in determining the tool / technique teacher assessment of student learning outcomes.
The purpose of education and teaching can be divided into four tiers / levels according to the scope and objectives to be achieved by the end.
1. National education goals
2.The purpose of education institutions
4.The purpose of teaching and learning
The national education goals
Is the common goal of national education of the national education system. This is a long-term goals and very broad and should guide all activities / business education in our country. This goal is then used as the basis in determining school goals and objectives of school curricula, formal and nonformal education purposes. In other words, national education goals to guide all activities and institutions of education in our country
The national education system (Law No. 2 in 1989) pointed out that the national education aims to develop the intellectual life of the nation and Indonesia fully human, the man who is faithful and righteous to God Almighty and noble character, have the knowledge and skills, health Physically and mentally, steady and independent personality and a sense of civic responsibility and nationality (MOEC, 1989).
Purpose of Educational Institutions
In achieving the common goal of national education of primary school should achieve the objectives or targets as follows:
1) In order for children of primary school graduates know the obligations and rights as human beings in accordance with the intent of the provisions Pancasila MPRS. No. Selarasa XXVII/66 and deeds with the knowledge and understanding that
2) In order for children of primary school graduates have the skills or any special skills that are his stock in the community and thus can stand alone and donated his skills to building a just and prosperous society.
3) In order for children of primary school graduates, have a solid knowledge base and skill use to continue their education to secondary school.
Thus, each institution has its own goals and objectives different from other educational institutions.
The curriculum of any educational / school in Indonesia should reflect the spirit of the preamble of the Constitution 45. Thus the curriculum must be 45 Constitution in executor / and through education.
The curriculum should provide the possibility of development to become fully human moral-minded, noble character and a strong belief beragamanya, a highly intelligent and skilled in construction and have a healthy and strong physically.
Within each group there are a number of subjects. And each subject has its own purposes which are different from each other. Objectives of this course is a translation of the curriculum in order to achieve national education goals.
Effective teachers must understand students’ growth and development in a comprehensive manner.
@ Basic concepts about student progress
Basic concepts related to the development of the students are:
Growth is a quantitative increase of the substance or structure which is generally marked by biological changes in a person toward maturity.
Maturity is the level or conditions that must be achieved in the process of individual development before it can perform properly in a variety of growth rates of mental, physical, social and emotional.
Maturity (maturation) is a normal progress of growth toward maturity. Due to the maturation process of growth factors in the various capacities and structures.
Describes the development and qualitative changes in seseornag abilitas, namely a change in the structure, Capacity, function, and efficiency. It is the overall developments, such as the development of intellectual, emotional, spiritual are related to each other.
Normal developmental pattern of development in terms of individual students. This development is different for each individual
Normal development in terms of chronological age.
Student is one component in teaching, in addition to teacher factors, objectives and teaching methods. Pupils is paramount among other components. Basically the “he” is the decisive element in the learning process. Without the students, will not actually happen the teaching process. The reason is because the disciples who need instruction and not the teacher, the teacher just trying to meet the needs that exist in students.
Teachers know their students with the intention that teachers can help the growth and development effectively. It is important to know and understand the students carefully, so that teachers can determine carefully the materials to be provided, using a procedure compatible teaching, held on the difficulty of diagnosis.
To recognize students, teachers can use the various tools.
Cumulative system of records contains many kinds of information about students.
Anecdotal record is a written record of one or more teachers’ observations of the behavior and reactions of students in various situations.
Conversations and informal interviews
In informal conversations with students before school, during recess and other times, interest, his reaction to the school, the experiences gained outside the school, motivations, and aspirations.
Teachers can use every opportunity every day to observe the behavior of his students.
Questionnaire consisted of a number of written questions submitted to the disciples to get a written answer.
The students held an informal discussion, and listen to the teacher.
Written tests, both made by the teachers as well as tests that have been prepared by the members or a particular institution, the teacher can find out about the education of the students, the level of intelligence, personality traits, attitudes and abilitas each pupil.
With this technique will lead students to express or project their interests, desires, attitudes or opinions.
Sosiometri test is used to obtain a picture of the relationship between students’ personal or social relationships among students in one class.
Conference Between Parents and Teachers
The opportunity to visit the parents (home visit) san held a meeting (conference) with the parents to report on the learning progress of students, the teacher should use the opportunity to learn the family situation.
With case studies, teachers can gather lots of information about a pupil from various sources in a single-unit pattern.
Department of Teacher Requires Special Skills
Department of known teachers as a professional job, meaning that this position requires a special skill, a professional teacher he mastered very well about the ins and outs of teaching and education dab other sciences.
Terms Become Teachers
1) must have talent as a teacher,
2) must have skills as a teacher,
3) Having a good personality and integrated,
4) Has, mental health,
6) Having extensive experience and knowledge,
7) The teacher is the human spirit of Pancasila, and
The teacher is a good citizen.
Teachers are the true human Pancasilaist
For teachers and mental outlook on life Pancasila not only important for itself, but rather immense significance in the education in schools.
Teachers should have skills as a teacher
Each professional must master teacher in-depth knowledge in his specialty.
Teachers should have a good personality and integrated
Due to the demands of the task, each teacher should have a good personality and integrated.
Teachers should have a healthy mental
A teacher can not have mentally disturbed, the teacher can not be angry, shy, timid, low self-esteem, anxiety, isolate themselves, aggressive, passive, quiet, dreamy, and so on.
Teachers must be able-bodied
Healthy body helps smooth the work of teachers.
Teachers should have a broad understanding and knowledge
Experience and knowledge is needed in teaching. He not only mastered enough pengethuan specialization, but also experience and general knowledge are also acknowledged.
Teachers should be a good citizen
As citizens of other countries then the teacher must comply with all rules and regulations issued by the government. Teachers must participate in the success of all government programs participated by doing activities that are in line with the program.
About teacher education
This institution aims to educate not only that the candidate be privately educated, but also gives them the ability to be able to carry out education to the student learner, in which case the later claim they are not dead matter but a human life is unique.
Teacher education last a lifetime
Basically the teacher education was not only survive 3 or 5 years, but last a lifetime.
The modern view of the kind described by Adams and Dickey that the teacher’s role is very broad indeed, covering:
a) the teacher as an educator (teacher as instructor)
b) the teacher as a mentor (teacher as counselor)
c) the teacher as scientist (teacher as scientist)
d) the teacher as a person (teacher as person)
e) the teacher as a liaison (teacher as communicator)
f) the teacher as moderisator, and
g) the teacher as a builder (teacher as contructora)
Teachers should menuntu students learn
The most important responsibility is to plan the teacher and the students demand-activity of learning activities to achieve the desired growth and development.
Participate and build the school curriculum
The teacher is a key person most knowledgeable about the curriculum to suit the needs of the student’s development, she actively participated in the coaching curriculum at his school.
Provide guidance to students.
Guidance to students so that they are able to know itself, solve their own problems, to face reality and have the emotional stamina is good, much needed.
To diagnose the learning difficulties and to assess the progress of learning
Teachers are responsible to adjust all the learning situation with interest, background and maturity of the students.
As a person who is engaged in the field of science education then he should be borne in improving the way it works.
Know the community and participate actively
Teachers can not possibly do the job effectively, if he does not know the full and complete.
To live, practice, and adopt the Pancasila
Pancasila is the nation’s view of life which underlies all the joints of living and the largest social groups including schools.
This plan serves as a long-term plan for the school. Curriculum based on course of studies that provide materials about the knowledge and skills required for students in each class / level.
The first day of the plan is to take those things are; do things that are routine, procedures and teaching materials, student seating arrangement, how to approach the teacher to pupil, such a discussion, demonstration, assign a student to his experience (during the holidays ) in front of the classroom, informal approach, provide additional explanations on lesson objectives, the scope of learning and reading materials are required.
Planning that had been developed previously only in outline only. The plan must be flexible, meaning that at any time if need be amended, supplemented or less. This change was done while running, so the plan is truly dynamic.
Drafting a plan is a shared responsibility of all teachers, principals, owners, and supervisors.
Teachers can engage students in making lesson planning. They need to be given the opportunity to contribute their thoughts in a group discussion material in preparing the plan, so it belongs to them and be responsible implementing it.
Weekly plan is a plan prepared to teach for one week, which in it contains articles daily for each subject.
In the principal’s daily work plan consists of two activities, the recitation and directed study. Both activities are linked to the aims and objectives of the lesson unit.
Evaluation of Teaching
Evaluation of teaching is a component of the educational system, while the educational system itself is an implementation of the curriculum, in an effort to create learning in the classroom. The main function of evaluation in the classroom is to determine the results of the teaching sequence.
Evaluation according to Kourilski (action on the determination of the degree peguasaan certain attributes by individuals or groups). The evaluation process is generally based on the student. This means that the evaluation is intended to observe student learning outcomes and attempt to determine how to create learning opportunities. Evaluation is also intended to observe the role of teachers, special teaching strategies, curriculum materials, and learning principles to be applied to teaching.
The purpose of evaluation to improve teaching and mastery of specific objectives in the classroom. According to Percival, Evaluation is a series of activities designed to measure the effectiveness of the teaching / learning as a whole.
Assessment is a series of activities designed to measure learning achievement (achievement) of students as a result of an instructional program.
1. Educative function is a subsystem within the education system that aims to obtain information about the whole system or one of its subsystems and education.
2. Instutisional function; evaluation serves to collect accurate information about the input and output side of learning in the learning process itself.
3. Diagnostic functions; with the evaluation can be known difficulties the problems being faced by students in their learning
4. Administrative functions; evaluation provides data on students’ progress, which in turn is useful to provide the certification.
5. Functions of management: an evaluation component is an integral part in the management system, the evaluation results useful as a material for the leader to make management decisions at all levels of management.
There are two patterns of evaluation of conflicting approaches. The first approach is called agricultural / botanical approach, which is a reflection of the scientific approach (scientic) for evaluation, while the other is a social / Anthropological approach that is more concerned with hidden processes that occur throughout the educational experience.
Determination of evaluation techniques depending on the type of information is expected, whether the result of changes in behavior (KAP) about the operation or implementation of instructional systems.
In conclusion of this paper is as follows:
1. Interaction terms stem from the concept of meaningful communication belong together or tell about knowledge. Thoughts, skills, and values
2. Educational interaction is the interaction of a deliberate, conscious, objective, namely to deliver students to a level of maturity
3. Educational interaction has features, conscious purpose, there is material / messages, there is the subject of student / student, no teacher, no method, there is no assessment of the situation is conducive.
4. Features of teaching and learning interactions that have a purpose there is a procedure (the course of interaction) was planned, marked a special cultivation of the material; characterized by the activity, there are teachers who act as mentors, requires discipline and there is no deadline for the achievement of goals and of course need for assessment activities.