You or the people around us must have had their own views or opinions on what is meant by intelligence. According to some experts:
Claporede and Stern, intelligence is defined as a mental adjustment to a new situation or condition.
K.Bulber defines intelligence as an act accompanied by knowledge and understanding.
David Wechsler found intelligence is the ability of individuals to think and act as directed, as well as processing and mastering environment effectively.
Asri Budiningsih opinion, intelligence is the ability to solve problems or produce something that is needed in a particular cultural background. Range issue or something produced from simple to complex, including starting an effort to end the story, their steps in the game of chess, patching a torn blanket, to produce theories, the composition of music and politics. Someone smart said if he can solve the problems encountered in life and is able to produce something useful for mankind.
Thus, referring to some difenisi intelligence delivered by experts, the intelligence is not fixated on academic ability, but it includes a number of one’s ability, either physical or psychological that work simultaneously to memecahlan problems, adapt, respond appropriately and correctly stimulus , and so on.
We will discuss next is what was raised by a professor of psychology at Harvard University who also figure that triggers Theory Howard Gardner Multiple Intelligences. Howard Gardner asserts that intelligence scale has been used, it has many limitations that are less able to predict one’s future success. According to a person’s intelligence include the following elements:
1. Language Intelligence
2. Logical mathematical intelligence
3. Spatial intelligence
4. Intelligence physical kinesthetic
5. Musical intelligence
6. Interpersonal Intelligence
7. Intrapersonal intelligence
8. Naturalist intelligence
Let’s give a little explanation about the eight intelligences by Howard Gardner and his relationship to the learners:
1. Intelligence Language (Linguistics)
Linguistic features the ability to think and use language and words, both written and verbal, in many different forms to express their ideas. Language learners with a high intelligence are generally characterized by pleasure in activities related to the use of a language such as reading, writing essays, writing poems, composing aphorisms, and so on.
Such learners also tend to have a strong memory, such as the names of people, new terms, and the things that are detailed. They tend to be easier to learn by listening and verbalization. In terms of mastery of a new language, learners generally have a higher capacity than the other students.
Examples of people who have the intelligence languages such as: Author, Poet, Journalist, Speaker, news reader.
Improve intelligence languages can dilakukana game by holding stringing words, make a diary or try to write about what you have in mind every day as much as 250 words, and make time to talk regularly with your family or friends.
2. Intelligence Mathematical / Logical
Logical mathematical intelligence includes a person’s ability to think inductively and deductively, according to the rules of logical thinking, understanding and analyzing patterns of numbers, and solve problems using thinking skills.
Students with high mathematical logical intelligence tend to favor activities to analyze and study the cause and effect of something happening. He loved to think conceptually, such as preparing and conducting hypothesis categorization and classification of what he faced. Learners tend to like this kind of activity and have high-speed arithmetic in solving mathematical problems. If do not understand, they will likely seek to ask and seek answers to things that are less understood it. They also really like the variety of games that involve active thinking activities, such as playing chess and playing the puzzle.
Thus a person who has a high mathematical logical kecerdasar be skilled in conducting a count or quantify, propose propositions and hypotheses and perform complex mathematical operations. Example – examples of people who have a logical mathematical intelligence are scientists, mathematicians, accountants, engineers, and computer programmers.
Increase the logical mathematical intelligence can be done by practicing calculate simple math problems in your head (how many 21 X 40 in 5 seconds), learn how to use an abacus, frequently filling a crossword puzzle / brain teaser.
3. Visual-Spatial Intelligence
Visual-spatial intelligence includes the ability of a person to better understand more fully the relationship between objects and space. Learners have the ability to create forms of imagination in his mind or the ability to create three-dimensional shapes such as is found in adults who became a sculptor or architect of a building. The ability to imagine a
real form and then solve the problems in relation to this capability is a standout on the type of visual-spatial intelligence.
People like this will excel in the search trail. Thus people who have spatial intelligence is the person who has the capacity to think in three dimensions. Example – examples of people who have spatial intelligence is the sailor, pilot, sculptor, painter and architect. Spatial intelligence allows individuals to perceive images of both internal and external, and interpret or communicate graphical information.
Improving spatial intelligence is frequently practiced drawing a three-dimensional game, puzzle, cubes, and other visual puzzles, the interior decoration and garden house, make the structure of objects with a logo, or any other three-dimensional toy.
4. Kinesthetic Intelligence
Kinesthetic intelligence is the ability to actively use the parts or the whole body to communicate and solve problems. It can be found in a person who excels in one sport, like badminton, football, tennis, swimming, ballet and other dance either, skillful acrobatics or playing magic.
Someone who has a kinesthetic intelligence are the ones who manipulate objects skillfully and capably perform physical activity.
Examples of people who have kinesthetic intelligence are athletes, dancers, surgeons, and craftspeople.
Improve kinesthetic intelligence can be done by joining and training with the club in the neighborhood, learn dance activities, collect various items that have different textures and distinctive shape, try to identify these objects with their eyes closed.
5. Musical Intelligence
Musical intelligence is the ability to be sensitive to nonverbal sounds that were around him, including in this case is the tone and rhythm.
A person of this type tend to be happy to hear the wonderful tone and rhythm, either through their own chanting sung, or heard of a musical instrument such as a tape recorder, radio, orchestra performances, or the instrument he played himself. They are also easier to remember something and express ideas when linked with music. People with
musical intelligence are sensitive to pitch, melody, and rhythm.
The people who have the intelligence of a good musical, among others; composer, conductor, musician, music critic, instrument makers and people sensitive to noise element.
Musical intelligence can be trained by visiting concerts or musical performances, sing in the shower or anywhere that allows for hum, take the time for an hour each week to listen to unfamiliar music style familiar (western, jazz, country, world music, etc. ).
6. Interpersonal Intelligence
Interpersonal intelligence suggests a person’s ability to be sensitive to the feelings of others. They tend to understand and interact with others so easily socialize with the surrounding environment.
Such intelligence is also known as social intelligence, which in addition to the ability to establish a close friendship with a friend, also includes capabilities such as lead, organize, handle disputes between friends, gain sympathy from his colleagues. Thus, interpersonal intelligence is the capacity of a person to be able to understand and be able to interact effectively with others.
Interpersonal intelligence will be seen from several oranng such as a successful teacher, social worker, actor, politician. Nowadays, people are beginning to realize that interpersonal intelligence is one of the factors that determine a person’s success.
Improving Interpersonal intelligence is: buy a card box, filled with the names of business contacts, friends, acquaintances, relatives, and others, as well as keep a relationship with them, take the time for 15 minutes each day to practice active listening with your spouse or a friend close; work with one or more people in a project based on shared interests (art of patchwork, bass player, writing articles on the coast).
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence
Intrapersonal intelligence is the ability to be sensitive to the feeling of his own. He tends to be able to recognize the strengths and weaknesses in himself. People with this kind of intelligence enjoy doing introspect ourselves, to correct deficiencies and weaknesses in himself, and then try to fix it. Some people who have this kind of intelligence tend to prefer silence and solitude, reflection, and dialogue with himself.
Intrapersonal intelligence are shown in the form of the ability to construct an accurate perception of yourself and use those skills in planning and directing others.
Increasing intrapersonal intelligence can be done as follows: choose a favorite character in a positive, and read and make them as comrades imagination in solving a problem that requires a deep understanding, do something fun yourself at least once a day, take about ten minutes every evening to mentally revisit various thoughts and feelings experienced.
8. Naturalist Intelligence
Naturalist intelligence is the ability to be sensitive to the natural environment, for example, happy to be in a natural environment that is open, such as beaches, mountains, nature reserves or forest. People with this type of intelligence, tend to like to observe the natural environment such as various kinds of rocks, soil types, various kinds of flora and fauna, celestial objects and so on. Nature lovers are classified as examples of people – people who have this intelligence.
The method can be used to improve the naturalist intelligence include guard favorite animal, increase the frequency of seeing a show about the flora and fauna of the program, (it’s the easiest) try to hold of to not damage the environment, such as a table scribbling, trampled office, picking flowers growing.
Of intelligence that Howard Gardne above mentioned we can conclude that all kids are smart, but we can not see and develop their intelligence. The theory of multiple intelligences above can be implemented in a learning activity. Implementation of the theory of multiple intelligences in learning activities require the support of the schooling system components as follows:
• The parents / community
Components of society, in this case the parents, need to provide optimal support for the theory of multiple intelligences so that implementation can be successful in school. Parents, in the context of the development of multiple intelligences have to give some freedom to their children to be able to select the competencies to be developed in accordance with the intelligence and the talent they have.
Guru holds a very important role in the implementation of the theory of multiple intelligences. That the implementation of the theory of multiple intelligences to achieve desired results as there are two things to note are:
- The ability of teachers to identify students’ individual intelligence
- Ability to teach and use of teaching time proportionally.
The ability of teachers to recognize multiple intelligence possessed by the students is very important. This factor will be decisive in the planning process of learning that must be taken by the student. There are many ways that can be done by teachers to identify specific intelligence possessed by students. The closer the relationship between teachers and students, it will be easier for teachers to identify students’ characteristics and level of intelligence.
After knowing each individual student intelligence, the step – the next step is to design learning activities. Armstrong (2004) suggests the proportion of time that can be used by teachers in implementing the theory of multiple intelligences are:
- 30% hands-on learning
- 30% of cooperative learning
- 30% of independent learning
Implementation of multiple intelligences theory implies that the teacher no longer acts as a source (resources), but it should act more as a manager of the learning activities. In applying the theory of multiple intelligences, the school system needs to provide teachers who are competent and capable of carrying the child to develop the potential of their intelligence.
Music teacher for example, in addition to playing a musical instrument, he must also be able to teach them so that they can be good role models for students who have musical intelligence.
In lessons teachers as educators interact with students who have diverse potential. For that learning should be geared more towards the creative learning process by using the process of divergent thinking (the thinking process to a variety of directions and generate a lot of alternative solution) and convergent thinking processes (process of thinking find a single answer most appropriate). In this context, more teachers act as facilitators rather than directors that determines everything for learners. As more teachers facilitators encourage students (motivator) to develop the initiative in exploring new tasks. Teachers need to be more open to ideas and more students try to eliminate the fear and anxiety that impede students’ thinking and creative problem solving.
How this can be realized on a learning atmosphere that can be enjoyed by learners?
The answer is learning competency approach, such as the teacher in the learning process:
1. provides the opportunity for students to play and creativity,
2. provide a safe and psychologically free,
3. not rigid discipline, students may have their own ideas and to participate actively
4. giving freedom to think creatively and actively participate.
All of this will enable learners to develop the full potential of an optimal brilliance. Atmosphere of teaching and learning activities are interesting, interactive, stimulating both hemispheres of learners in a balanced, taking into account the uniqueness of each individual, as well as involving the active participation of each learner will make all potential learners develop optimally.
Furthermore, the teacher’s task is to develop the students’ potentials to the maximum ability to apply theory School
Multiple intelligences also need to provide support facilities other than qualified teachers. The facility can be used by teachers and students in improving specific intelligences. Facility may take the form of instructional media and learning tools and equipment that can be used to enhance multiple intelligences. Examples of learning facilities that can be used to enhance multiple intelligences include: music equipment, sports equipment and media that can be used to train specific intelligence.
• Curriculum and assessment system
Curriculum and assessment system is an integral and powerful that in the curriculum can be set scoring system required by the school to apply the theory of multiple intelligences different scoring system used in conventional schools. Schools that implement multiple intelligences theory basically assumes that all individuals are smart. Assessment is used not oriented on the input of the learning process but more oriented towards process and progress (progress) shown by the students in learning a specific skill. Appropriate assessment methods with such systems is the method of portfolio assessment.
Portfolio assessment system emphasizes the gradual development to be passed by the student in learning a skill or knowledge.
Each individual has a unique potential to be developed into a competence. Education is a process undertaken to develop the potential of individuals to competency….