Superiority of a nation no longer rely on natural resources, but on the primacy of human resources (HR), which is well-educated workers who are able to answer the challenges very quickly. Overall, the quality of human resources in Indonesia Indonesia is still lag behind SDM and developed countries and neighboring countries, such as Malaysia and Thailand. This fact is more than enough to encourage education experts and practitioners conduct systematic studies to fix or improve the national education system.
So that the output of the school is able to adapt dynamically to the changes and challenges, the government floated the idea of school-based management education (school-based management) which gives ample scope for schools and communities to determine the self-development program and plan in accordance with the requirements and conditions each.
In line with the idea of decentralized management of education, the school management functions need to be empowered to the fullest in order to run effectively to produce quality graduates who are expected by the community and the nation. It has to be supported by a set of instruments that will encourage schools to work to improve the effectiveness of its management functions continuously so as to develop into a learning organization.
Through this paper we try to explain to able to learn and understand about effective school which is a breakthrough in the world of education.
2.1 Definition of Effective Schools
School is an institution in which there is a component of teachers, students, and administrative staff who each have a specific task in launching the program. As formal education institutions, schools are required to produce graduates who have the academic ability of specific, skills, attitudes and mental, as well as other personalities so that they can continue to pursue a higher education or working in jobs that require expertise and skills. The success of a school is a micro size based on the goals and objectives of education at school level in line with the national education goals as well as the extent to which the objectives can be achieved at a certain period in accordance with the length of education that takes place in school.
Based on the success of the school’s point of view, then known effective and efficient school that refers to the extent to which schools can achieve the objectives and targets set yag education. In other words, the school is called effective if the school is able to achieve what has been planned. Common sense is also associated with effective schools formulation of what to do with what has been achieved. So that a school will be called effective if there is a strong relationship between what has been formulated to work with the results achieved by the school, said the school otherwise ineffective when the relationship is low (Getzel, 1969).
Effective school is a school that can achieve the targets that have been set for himself. Superior and effective school is a school that can hit the target with a high target setting.
Understanding the effectiveness of schools according to the experts:
1. Peter Mortimore (1996): Effective schools can be defined as “A high performing school, through its well-established system promotes the highest academic and other achievements for the maximum number of students Regardless of its socio-economic background of the families”.
2. Taylor (1990) defines an effective school as a school that mengorgansiasikan and utilize all its resources to ensure that all students (regardless of race, gender and socioeconomic status) can learn the essential material in the school curriculum.
3. Cheng (1996) defines an effective school as a school that has the ability to function optimally, better economic function, social function humanitarian, political functions, cultural functions and educational functions. Economic function is to give school supplies to students in order to carry out economic activities so as to live well. Humanity is the social function of the school as a medium for students to adapt to people’s lives. The political function of the school is as a vehicle to acquire knowledge about the rights and obligations as citizens. Function of school culture is the medium for the transmission and transformation of culture. The function of education is the school as a vehicle for the process of maturation and the formation of the personality of students.
School effectiveness shows the process of engineering a variety of sources and methods are directed to the optimal learning in school. School effectiveness refers to the empowerment of all components of the school as an organization where learning is based on the duties and functions of each in the structure of the program in order for students to learn and achieve the results that have been established which have competence.
On effective schools that all students not only have a high ability to learn but also who has the intellectual ability biasapun can develop themselves as far as possible when compared to the initial condition when new rnereka entering school.
Conclusion of effective schools that can be drawn from the above explanations is a school that is able to optimize all of the input and output processes for the achievement of the educational achievement of students, especially school performance that is characterized by its ability to form all the competencies required in the study.
2.2 The concept of Effective Schools
Effective school concept emerged based on the results of meta research conducted in different countries. Initial research proves the following:
1. In the United States, Coleman (1966) reported a “high-achieving students in school, go on to higher education, and his success is the students who come from families with high socioeconomic. While low student achievement, not able to learn in school, drop out, do not proceed to a higher level, do not have the motivation to learn are students who come from low socioeconomic families.
2. In the UK, Robbins (1962) reported that almost all of the students who go on to pursue higher education come from families whose fathers have a high profession. Only 2% of students who go on to pursue higher education come from families whose fathers do not have the capacity or adequate education.
3. Research Center for Measurement and Evaluation of NSW, (1960-1970) Australia, concluded that the opinions or views of parents about the value of education affects the learning achievement of children in school. Based on the opinions or views of parents, it can be predicted student achievement in school, when students drop out, and what kind of job would be practiced.
4. In conclusion, family background is an important factor determining student achievement or success in school. What students brought to school is much more important than the process that occurs in the school. Schools can not make significant changes to the student.
In fact, there are schools that consistently produce high-achieving students, continue to pursue a higher and more successful life, regardless of the family background of students. In the UK, research Rutter (1979) reported that the school has the following characteristics: emphasis on learning, teachers plan together and work together in the implementation of learning, and there are directional supervision of senior teachers and principals.
In the United States, research Weber (1971), Austin (1978), Brookeover & Lezotte (1979), Edmonds & Frederickson (1979), Phi Delta Kappa (1980), the meta-analysis concluded that the school has the characteristics: strong leadership, has high expectations for students and teachers, conducive environment, the principal role as “instructional leader”, the progress of student achievement are often monitored, and support active parent involvement. Maintenance through quality, responsive to the challenges and anticipate the changes that result from changes in the internal structure so as to avoid turbulent state will support school improvement. Globalization requires together with various educational world through engineering change management education while holding the nation’s self-image. Schools that only maintain a stable state without responding to the turmoil will be faced with unfavorable circumstances. As improving the quality of education, especially higher education institutions must do a variety of arrangements. One upayannya is revamping management field. Good management will make the school managed to achieve educational goals and objectives.
Based on the success of the school’s point of view, then known as effective schools. Common sense is also associated with effective schools formulation of what to do with what is to be achieved. So the school is said to be effective if there is a strong relationship between what has been formulated to work with the results achieved by the school. Effectiveness is a measure of the extent to which the stated goals or objectives have been achieved. School effectiveness is also related to quality. Quality is a comprehensive overview and characteristics that show kemampuaannya in satisfying the needs of a specified or implied for example the value of final exam results, sporting achievements, accomplishments and achievements of scientific papers performing arts. Influenced by the quality of graduates stages interconnected school activities including planning, implementation and evaluation. School effectiveness indicates the process of engineering a variety of sources and methods are directed to the school learning is optimal. School effectiveness refers to the empowerment of all components of the school as an organization where learning is based on the duties and functions of each in the structure of the program in order for students to learn and achieve the results that have been established, which has competence. On effective schools, all students both students who have high ability in learning, which can develop themselves, students who have the intellectual ability biasapun can develop itself, when compared to the initial condition when they were just entering school.
So the concept of effective school is a school that is able to optimize all of the input and output processes for the achievement of education, ie school achievement student achievement is particularly characterized by its ability to form all the competencies required in the study.
The essence of which is contained in the introduction above is the function of schools as places of learning have an obligation to hold a quality learning experience for learners. Essence that is the mission or school principal task, which should be the basis for learners and effective analysis of school performance.
Multiple perspectives can be recounted below:
1) Effective Schools in the Perspective of Quality Education.
Implementation of service learning for students is usually studied in the context of the quality of education is closely related to the assessment of quality management and effective schools. In the neighborhood school system, the concept of quality of education is perceived differently by different parties. According to the perception of most people (parents and society in general), the quality of education in schools is simply seen and the acquisition value or number that is achieved as shown in the results of tests and examination. Schools are considered qualified if his students, mostly or entirely, to obtain a high mark or grade, so the opportunity to continue to pursue a higher education.
Perception is not wrong if the value or number is recognized as a representation of the totality of learning outcomes, which describe the degree of trustworthy behavior change related to ability or mastery of cognitive, affective and psychomotor. Thus, the results of quality education has the feel of quantitative and qualitative. That is, in addition shown by an indicator of how many students who excel as seen in the scoring or high value, also shown by how well their students ownership of personal qualities, as seen in confidence, self-reliance, discipline, hard work and tenacious, skilled, -virtuous character, faithful and devoted, social and national responsibility, appreciation, and so forth. The above analysis gives a clear understanding that the concept of effective schools is directly related to the quality of school performance.
Most common capabilities of a child is usually used as a predictor to explain the level of ability to complete the course of study, so this capability is often referred to as scholastic aptitude or academic potential. A student who has a high academic potential is thought to have a high ability also to complete programs of study or learning tasks in general at school, and therefore calculated to obtain the desired achievement.
Meanwhile, a special ability or talent to be a good predictor for achievement in the field of specialized study in fields such as art, music, acting and the like. On the basis of this understanding, then to obtain a good quality school education, it serves students must have sufficient potential to complete the learning programs that are required by the school curriculum. Professional ability of teachers is reflected in the quality of the learning experience of students who interact in the learning process conditions. This condition is influenced by:
1. level of mastery of the lesson materials and teacher mastery of scientific concepts structure.
2. methods, approaches, styles or art and teaching procedures, utilization, learning facilities effectively and efficiently.
3. teachers’ understanding of the characteristics of groups and individual students.
4. the ability of teachers to create creative dialogue and create a fun learning environment.
5. personality of the teacher.
On the basis of this analysis, the efforts to improve the quality of education in schools should be accompanied by efforts to improve professional skills and improve the quality of teacher personality. At the school level, these efforts are shown in the following activities, namely:
1. interaction collegiality among teachers.
2. understanding of cognitive processes in the organization of teaching.
3. mastery of subject matter knowledge structure.
4. possession of understanding and appreciation of the values, beliefs, and standards.
5. teaching skills.
6. knowledge of how students learn.
Learning facilities in the availability of the things that can make it easier for the acquisition of effective learning experience and efficient. Learned a very important facility is the library, computers, and other physical conditions that directly affect the comfort of learning.
School culture is the whole experience of the students’ psychological (social, emotional and intellectual) are absorbed by them while in the school environment. Psychological response to the students’ everyday things like the ways teachers and other school personnel to act and behave (eg, homeroom service and administrative personnel), the implementation of school policies, school shop conditions and services, structuring the beauty, cleanliness and comfort of the campus, all establish school culture.
School culture seeps in psychological appreciation of the school community including students, which in turn form a pattern of values, attitudes, habits and behaviors. Important aspect that helped shape the culture of a school is school leadership. Effective school leadership is a source of value and spirit, the source of order and institutional behavior oriented towards and in line with the vision and mission of the school.
Therefore, the principal let someone who has the vision and mission of the institution, has the conceptual ability, the skill and art of human relations, mastering the technical aspects and substantive work, have a passion for progress, and has a passion to serve and the character received by environment.
Analysis of the theme of effective schools in the perspective of the quality of education can be said that an effective school is a school that:
1. have the potential student input in accordance with the demands of the curriculum
2. can provide quality learning services
3. have school facilities that support the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching and learning activities
4. have the ability to create a school culture that is conducive as a reflection of the performance of the professional leadership of the school principal.
2) Effective School Management in Perspective.
School management is the process of utilizing all the resources that schools do through rational and systematic actions (includes planning, organizing, mobilizing action, and control) to achieve school goals effectively and efficiently.
Management actions are rooted in policy and regulations agreed that manifested in the form of attitudes, values, and behaviors of all the people involved in it. Management actions do not take place in a single isolation, but rather occurs in the integrity of the system complexity. When viewed in this perspective, the dimensions of effective schools include:
1. Service Learning for Students
2. Management and Student Services
3. School Infrastructure
4. Program and Financing
5. Public Participation
6. School Culture
3) Effective Schools in Perspective Theory of Organisms.
Effective schools are able to realize what is referred to as “self-renewing schools” or “schools adaptive”, or also known as “learning organization” is a condition in which the institutional identity of the school as one capable of handling the problems it faces while demonstrating its capabilities to innovate.
According to the theory of organism, this world is not an inanimate object, but an energy that has the capacity to adapt to the changing environment. In this perspective, then any life form will only be able to survive if the organism is capable of responding appropriately to adapt to the changes that occur in the vicinity.
2.3 Characteristics and Characteristics of Effective Schools
2.3.1 Characteristics of Effective Schools
David A. Squires, et.al. (1983) the characteristics of effective schools, namely:
1. the disciplinary standards applicable to principals, teachers, students, and staff at the school
2. has a regularity in routine classroom activities;
3. standard school has a very high achievement;
4. students are expected to achieve the goals that have been planned;
5. students are expected to graduate with a master academic knowledge;
6. an award for students who excel;
7. student believes hard work is more important than the luck factor in achievement;
8. The students are expected to have acknowledged responsibility in general, the principal has the inservice program, monitoring, supervision, and provides time to make a plan together with the teachers and allow for feedback to successful academic achievement.
According to Peter Mortimore (1991) Effective schools are characterized as follows:
(1) The school has a clear vision and mission and run with consistent;
(2) a good school environment, and the discipline and order among students and staff;
(3) strong principal leadership;
(4) The rewards for teachers and staff as well as students who excel;
(5) Delegation of authority is clear;
(6) Support local community;
(7) The school has a clear program design;
(8) The school has its own focus system;
(9) Students are given the responsibility;
(10) Teachers implementing innovative learning strategies;
(11) Evaluation of continuous improvement;
(12) terancang school curriculum and integrated with one another;
(13) Involving parents and the community in the education of their children.
2.3.2 Characteristics of Effective Schools
Shannon and Bylsma (2005) identifies nine characteristics of the schools look superior (high performing schools). To that end they fought and worked hard in a relatively long time. The nine characteristics of effective schools look ahead that includes:
1. Clear and shared focus
2. Standards and high expectations for all students
3. Effective school leadership
4. The level of cooperation and innovative communication
5. Curriculum, learning and evaluation that goes beyond the standard
6. The frequency of monitoring of learning and teaching high
7. Development of teachers and staff who are focused
8. Environment that supports learning
9. High involvement of families and communities
When linked between all these effective school factors, it was evident that all of these factors in this paper is also known as the dimensions of the quality of education. In other words, it can be mentioned that the other schools are not effective and do not not is also the name for quality education. Quality education not only includes student achievement of academic excellence, but also non-academic as success in sports and increase the passion to learn.
Therefore, any measure of success in student achievement not only be based on the results of the test in the form of numbers but also non-cognitive aspects such as attendance, active participation in class, and even the drop out rate. And effective schools also require the support of parents and the community, which is contained in the body known as the Board of Education and the School Committee.
In the UK, research Rutter (1979) reported that the school has the following characteristics: emphasis on learning, teachers plan together and work together in the implementation of learning, and there are directional supervision of senior teachers and principals in the United States, research Weber ( 1971), Austin (1978), Brookeover & Lezotte (1979), Edmonds & Frederickson (1979), Phi Delta Kappa (1980), the meta-analysis concluded that the school has the characteristics: strong leadership, have high expectations for students and teachers , conducive environment, the principal role as ‘instructional leader’, the progress of student achievement are often monitored, and support active involvement of parents.
Jaap Scheerens (1992) Effective schools have five essential characteristics, namely:
1. strong leadership;
2. emphasis on the achievement of basic skills;
3. a comfortable environment;
4. high expectations on student achievement;
5. and regular assessment of the program that the students make.
Mackenzie (1983) identifies three dimensions of effective education is leadership, effectiveness and efficiency as well as key elements and supporting each of these dimensions.
Additional knowledge about effective schools are as follows:
1. able to demonstrate her skills on a set of criteria;
2. sets clear goals and attempt to achieve it;
the existence of strong leadership;
3. a good relationship between the school with parents, and
4. staff development and school climate conducive to learning
2.4 Effective School Leadership
There are four strategic component in achieving the school’s objectives, namely:
1. program components. Program that is measurable and realistic program in accordance with the regulatory dynamics and demands of the times.
2. figure, ie, the people behind the program is the program designer and actor.
3. culture, the work ethic and commitment to the duties and functions.
4. budget, which is a sufficient budget and enable the achievement of goals. As described Syafaruddin (2008: 180) that effective schools are schools that their students achievement scores are not too varied in terms of socio-economic status.
Then also there are four characteristics of effective schools, namely:
1. strong principal leadership.
2. high expectations for student achievement.
3. emphasis on basic skills.
4. regularity and controlled atmosphere.
Strong school leadership will be very influential in the establishment of an effective school. That is because the principal is one of the figures (key person) in realizing the vision, mission and goals of the school. Usman Husaini (2006: 469) argues that the principal as school manager charged in organizing all the school’s resources using the principle of “TEAMWORK”, which implies a sense of togetherness (Together), clever sense (Empathy), mutual aid (Assist), each full maturity (Maturity), adhere (Willingness), each regular (Organization), mutual respect (Respect), and another kind (Kindness).
Apart from that Suyanto (2006: 180) explains that the effort to improve school effectiveness can also be done by applying four techniques, namely:
1. School review, which is a process in which all components of the school work together especially with parents and professionals to evaluate and assess the effectiveness of the school and the quality of graduates;
2. Benchmarking, ie activities to set targets to be achieved within a given period;
3. Quality assurance, is a technique to determine that the educational process has been going on as it should. The information generated will be fed back to the school and provide assurance to parents that the school continues to provide the best service;
4. Quality control is a system for detecting the deviation of output quality is not up to standard.
As a leader in the school, the principal is required to carry out all the roles optimally. In order to realize an effective school, the toughest issues that must be addressed is the provision of facilities that support local potential can develop optimally.
From the discussion it can be concluded that:
School as a system, which is a unit consisting of components that are interrelated to each other to form a coherent whole. While the school itself consists of several components (input, process and output) are related to each other so that the school can be regarded as a system.
Understanding of effective school is a school that has a good management system, transparent and accountable, and empower every important component school, both internally and externally, in order to achieve the vision-mission-school goals effectively and efficiently.
The concept of an effective school is a school that is able to optimize all of the input and output processes for the achievement of education, ie school achievement student achievement mainly characterized by its ability to form all the competencies required in the study. Characteristics of effective schools, namely:
1. strong principal leadership.
2. high expectations for student achievement.
3. emphasis on basic skills.
4. regularity and controlled atmosphere.
Effective school leadership by the school principal as a principal figure (key person) in realizing the vision, mission and goals of the school are effective schools.