July 14th, 2012
In the context of learning, we would be familiar with the terms of approaches, strategies, methods, techniques, and learning models. But many of the students education (prospective teachers) and even the teachers who do not understand in depth so it can not explain what exactly the similarities and differences of these terms. Most of them understand each of those terms. Others think differently to these terms, but not able to explain how the difference. In what follows, I attempt to explain the difference between learning approaches, learning strategies, learning methods: learning techniques, and learning models. Each of these terms can be explained as follows:
Learning approach is the way teachers view the learning process, in which there are learning strategies with all his theories. Learning approaches can be divided into two approaches are student-centered learning (student centered approach) and learning-centered approach the teacher (teacher centered approach). Of the two learning approaches are then lowered into the learning strategies.
Learning strategy is a teacher of learning activities undertaken with the aim of the learning process that takes place in the classroom can achieve (goals) to effectively and efficiently. Inside there is a learning strategy-planning planning created teachers. In principle, the learning strategy of conceptual plans that will decisions be taken in the learning process. Viewed from the side of the strategy, can be grouped into two general categories: exposition-discovery and group learning, individual learning. Meanwhile, in terms of how the presentation and the way of processing, can be divided into two learning strategies are the inductive and deductive learning strategies. Learning strategy is still conceptual, necessary for the implementation of certain teaching methods.
Method can be considered as a way of learning that must be taken to realize the plan that has been a teacher in a real and practical activities in the classroom to achieve learning objectives. Thus, the strategy is “a plan for Achieving Goals” while the method is “a way for Achieving Goals”. There are many methods of learning that can be used to achieve these learning strategies include: (1) lecture, (2) demonstration, (3) discussion, (4) simulation, (5) laboratory, (6) field experience, (7) brainstorming; (8) debates, (9) symposium, and so forth. Meanwhile, there are techniques in the teaching methods of learning.
Learning techniques is the way in which the teacher in carrying out the method of learning. As an illustration, the application of the method of role playing in class that students have parents with higher average economies, different treatment techniques for parents of students with low average economy. Also the application of methods for a class belonging to the debate on, need to use different techniques than the class of passive students. A teacher can alternate while learning techniques within the framework of the same learning methods.
Learning model is a frame from the application of an approach, strategy, methods, and techniques of learning. Learning model is a series of strategies, methods, and techniques of learning in a single unified whole. Thus, the learning model is basically a form of learning which is reflected from start to finish is typically presented by the teacher.
According to Arends (1997), learning model implies something greater than the strategies, methods, or steps. Learning model includes the approach, the whole area of learning. For example, problem-based teaching model (problem-based instruction) involving small groups of students working together to solve problems of mutual interest to the group. In this model, students use a variety of thinking skills of problem solving and critical measures. Thus, one model of learning to use a number of methodological or procedural skills such as defining problems, ask questions, conduct research, discussion and debate found the findings, work together, creating a masterpiece, and presentations. Learning model has four attributes of a strategy or a typical procedure (Arends, 1997):
1. A coherent theoretical rationale
2. Aimed at learning outcomes
3. Required to teach behavior
4. Required class structure
Arends (1997) also menyatakah that learning models are classified based on learning goals, their syntax (sequential patterns), and the nature of their learning environment. Typical use of the model allows teachers to achieve some learning objectives. Models of teaching (direct instruction) for example, is a good method to help students learn basic skills such as multiplication tables or geography. However, it is not suitable for teaching math concepts a higher level or to help students understand the influence of Earth’s topography on agricultural production.
The syntax of the model of the stages of learning is a reference to the overall plot or sequence of steps in the learning process. The syntax of the lesson to determine what types of activities the teacher and student activities are required, the sequence of actions taken, and the specific tasks given to students. The syntax of the learning model has certain things the same. For example, almost all the commands starting with getting students’ attention and get them motivated to engage in learning activities. Similarly, most models use some form of closure measures which teachers and students summarize or review what they have learned. The syntax of the model are also learning there is a difference. Sequence of learning activities in teaching (direct instruction) for example, is much different than in the lesson group discussion (group discussion lesson).
Each model involves perberbedaan learning environment and management system. Each approach places different demands on students, the physical space, and the social class system. Cooperative learning (cooperative learning), for example, requires a flexible physical environment that includes features such as moveable tables. The discussion is usually done when the students sit in a circle or horseshoe arrangement. In contrast, in the direct teaching (direct instruction) works well if the students sit in rows facing the teacher. Similarly, different teaching approaches make different demands on the student assignment, and this requires a particular management strategy. In direct instruction, it is important for students to be quiet and pay attention to what is said and done by the teacher. However, during cooperative learning, critical precisely when students talk to each other.
However there is no single model of learning is better than the other. Classroom teachers need a repertoire of practical teaching in order to meet the diverse objectives and circumstances that characterize today’s schools. Approaches or methods are no longer enough. With a repertoire that is enough, the teacher can choose the best model to achieve a particular goal or the most appropriate to the situation or particular student groups. Also, alternative models can sometimes be used together. For example, teachers can use direct instruction to each new subject or skill, followed by class discussion to broaden students’ thinking about one topic. And then divide the students into cooperative learning groups to practice newly acquired skills and to build their own interpretation of the subject.
In the context of learning, so that teachers can perform their duties professionally, then teachers need to understand and possess adequate skills in developing various models of effective learning, creative and fun, as hinted in the Education Unit Level Curriculum. Basically creative teachers can try out and develop a distinctive learning model, in accordance with actual conditions in their respective workplaces, so that in turn will appear models of learning version of the teacher in question, which of course will further enrich the learning model that has been no. Model of learning from teachers in one school may differ from the model of learning from teachers in other schools even though the perception of the same approaches and methods. Therefore, teachers need to master and apply specific learning model in which there are approaches, strategies, methods, and techniques of learning.